Soil amendment with dry leaf biomass of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) alters physiochemical and growth parameters of Chickpea plants grown under collar rot disease influence
The present study investigated the effects of soil amendment with dry leaf biomass of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) on physiochemical and growth parameters of Chickpea plants (Cicer arietinum) under the influence of collar rot disease. Three different concentrations of dry leaf biomass (1%, 2%, and 3%) were utilized, and the results were compared to the effects of the standard drug chloramphenicol. Various parameters such as plant height, shoot and root dry weight, tota
l phenolics, flavonoids, chlorophyll contents, and ascorbic acid were measured, alongside disease incidence and mortality rates. The findings of this study revealed significant improvements in the growth and physiological characteristics of Chickpea plants upon soil amendment with red clover dry leaf biomass. Plant height, shoot and root dry weight, total phenolics, flavonoids, chlorophyll contents, and ascorbic acid levels exhibited considerable increases compared to the control group. Moreover, the incidence and mortality rates of collar rot disease were significantly reduced in the Chickpea plants treated with red clover biomass. The results also demonstrated a dose-dependent response, with higher concentrations (2% and 3%) of dry leaf biomass exhibiting more pronounced effects on the measured parameters. However, even the lowest concentration (1%) of red clover biomass still showed significant improvements over the control group. In comparison to the standard drug chloramphenicol, the effects of red clover dry leaf biomass were found to be comparable or even superior in some cases. This suggests the potential of red clover biomass as a natural and sustainable alternative for managing collar rot disease and promoting the growth of Chickpea plants. These findings contribute to the development of eco-friendly and effective strategies for plant disease management and agricultural sustainability.